APA Research Paper Format


APA Research Paper Format

APA research paper format should include:  cover page, abstract, introduction, main body (with headings and subheadings), conclusion, and reference list.  If you research paper is short, you may decide not to use headings.  Despite of the research paper length, you must cite all sources used for research paper writing in the following format (Author’s Last Name, Year).  If you need custom research papers written especially for you, do not hesitate to order professional paper writing service at our site.  Below is a short sample research paper on primitive women. If you need more samples, look at our free essay writing blog

Research Paper sample

Once the decision is made to abort, how have women traditionally gone about it? Again, many of the methods used by primitive women are similar to methods modern women have used. According to Devereux, primitive women are known to drink certain herbs or seawater, insert irritants such as tobacco and insect pastes, or the foam from a camel's mouth, into the cervix to start uterine contractions. They lift and carry heavy weights, put hot stones on the belly, punch the belly, squeeze, massage and knead it, or insert sticks or the center rib of a large leaf into the uterus. They even jump from high rocks and trees.

The earliest recorded medical writings advise the use of a number of different herbs and roots to cause abortion. The mandrake root, for one, was suggested as an abortifacient as well as a cure for almost everything else. In the fourth century B.C. Hippocrates, whose writings prohibited the use of abortifacients, nevertheless is said to have suggested "leaping with the heels to the buttocks for the sake of expulsion." The Greeks, Romans and Egyptians inserted papyrus and laurel into the cervix as irritants to stimulate contractions and promote abortion.

Modern medical techniques of abortion have come a long way from the roots, herbs and hot stones of primitive times. If the operation is performed legally in a hospital or, even though illegally, by a competent doctor, it is a simple, safe procedure. Ironically, because of the continued illegality of abortion in most states, the difficulty in justifying a legal hospital abortion in others, and the fear, expense and uncertainty of procuring a good illegal abortion, modern woman has often had to turn to primitive methods of selfinduced abortion despite the sophistication of modern medicine.

She has tried severe and prolonged exercise such as running up and down stairs, skiing and horseback riding. In an effort to bring on uterine contractions, she has endangered her own life by drinking drugs such as castor oil and quinine, or poisons such as kerosene. She has asked a friend to help by injecting potassium permanganate, formaldehyde, Lysol, or salt or soap solutions with a douche nozzle or syringe through her closed cervix into the womb. Such drugs are poisonous if they reach the bloodstream and some damage the cervix and vagina and lead to infection and hemorrhage.

She has tried to lacerate the fetal membranes so that the amniotic fluid which surrounds the fetus will escape and it will be aborted. To do this she has inserted such instruments as a tube, wire coat hanger, umbrella rib or knitting needle. She has done this even though there is great danger of rupturing the uterus and causing infection as well.

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